PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH

Poliovirus vaccine inactivation effectiveness assessment using molecular technique

Poliomyelitis is an acute paralytic disease caused by the poliovirus- a Human Enterovirus C (HEV) of the Picornaviridae family, which is classified into three distinct and stable serotypes: Sabin 1, 2 and 3. The Sabin live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) uses attenuated strains of each of the three serotypes which when administered replicate in the human gut and induce a strong and long-lasting immune response, including a local intestine immunity. In rare cases associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) occurs in 1 case per 0.2 to 2.5 million doses.

As part of the transition, remaining OPV stocks (used, damaged and expired) need to be properly destroyed following WHO strict guidelines and protocols. Heat inactivation with boiling or hot water and/or autoclaving is widely utilized to destroy this vaccine. To determine efficacy of heat-treated polio vaccine inactivation process, CMDN is working with Health Care Foundation Nepal to develop molecular based technique to assure total destruction of the vaccine.