Newcastle Disease Virus in Chickens – Landscape Study

NewCastle diseases, a disease caused by avian paramyxovirus that affects domestic and wild avian species of bird. It is a contagious disease spreading mostly by aerosol and through faecal contamination can be transmissible to humans though the symptoms is limited to mild conjunctivitis and influenza like syndrome. The Newcastle disease virus (NCDV) is serotype 1 of paramyxovirus which has been classified as Avulavirus genus, Paramyxovirinae sub-family and Paramyxoviridae family. NCDV is distributed in poultry inmost of Asia, Africa, and few countries in North and South America. It is mostly prevalent in cross breeds of chickens as compared to local breed and altitude also seems to have effect as low altitude has higher prevalence than that of mid and high altitudes. Depending on the pathogenicity NCDV have been divided into five pathotype: Asymptomatic enteric strain; Lentogenic strain; Mesogenic stain; Viscerotropicvelogenic strain and Neurotropic velogenic strain. Symptoms of Newcastle diseases includes gasping, coughing, sneezing and rales relating to mostly respiratory system and nervous system includes paralyzed wings and legs, twisted necks,cicling, clonic spasms; sometime complete paralysis. Other symptoms include greenish diarrhea, depression and inappetence along with partial or complete drop in egg production and increase in deformity in egg. Among infectious diseases that affects the production in poultry industry, Newcastle is one of those diseases that can cause massive economical lose. Newcastle disease however can be prevented using vaccines. A simple vaccination at proper dose and time can save a fortune for the farmers and can be a huge difference for the people that can get affected by the disease from possible exposure. Currently, the major problem in the field is lack of good quality vaccine that is made from seed culture isolated locally in order to avoid vaccine failure. This project aims to isolate local strain of Newcastle disease virus strain and find its distribution using one-health platform and protocol and apply that finding in producing new and efficient vaccines to be used against it.