Human wildlife disease risk assessment in urban setting- using latest in mobile based data captureand analysis
More than 60% of infectious diseases in humansare caused by pathogens shared with wild ordomestic animals (Taylor 2001), and the greatestburden on human health and livelihoods globallyhas been linked to endemic zoonoses (ILRI 2012).Furthermore, the majority of emerging infectiousdiseases identified in people over the past 70years were zoonotic posing a critical threat toglobal health (Jones 2008). Transmission andemergence of zoonotic pathogens from animalsto people is dependent on a multitude of factorsfrom molecular to landscape level, thoughultimately it is a product of the human-animalrelationship and contact interface (Karesh 2012).
Several factors have been identified as drivingdisease emergence, including pathogencharacteristics, environmental factors andchanges in land use, human population growth,agricultural intensification, international traveland trade, changes in human behaviour andsocial structure, and breakdown in publichealth infrastructure, among others (Smolinski 2003). While diseases are often conceivedof as emerging in remote areas, many of the these drivers are present and intensifying inestablished urban and peri-urban areas, whichdue to their role in commerce and trade areincreasingly interconnected with the globalcommunity.
This study seeks to characterize humanand animal contact at high-risk interfaces for zoonotic disease evolution, spillover, amplification and spread in urban ecosystemsof Kathmandu, Nepal, and to identify behaviors and practices that may place people living inand visiting these areas at high risk for exposureto wildlife zoonoses in order to recommenddisease preventive measures.
Latest in mobile based survey data capture andreal time analysis was used to carry out thissurvey.